Consumers’ purchase intention of rapid COVID-19 tests


  • Klender Cortez Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Contaduría Publica y Administración, San Nicolás de los Garza, México
  • Martha del Pilar Rodríguez-García Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Contaduría Publica y Administración, San Nicolás de los Garza, México
  • Christian Reich Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Contaduría Publica y Administración, San Nicolás de los Garza, México


Rapid COVID-19 tests, Purchase intention, Mexico, Probit, Symptomatology



This research aims to analyse the variables related to the purchase intention of COVID-19 rapid tests in Monterrey, Mexico's metropolitan area.


The chosen method was probit regression. The results show that purchase intention depends on the consumer's perceived value and the perception of having a potential contagion and/or presenting symptoms related to the virus. Regarding limitations, the sampling method used in this investigation is a nonprobabilistic convenience approach delivered through a digital platform, which may not be the first option in other contexts.


The findings indicate that the probability of the purchase intention of rapid COVID tests increases when consumers perceive symptoms of the disease and when they have higher education or are female rather than concerning price or income, as suggested by classical demand theory.

Research limitations/implications

Probabilistic sampling was impossible due to the difficulty of collecting surveys during the COVID-19 pandemic. Instead, a nonprobabilistic sample of a representative random selection of different zip codes from the responses received was considered.


The originality of the paper is its contribution to consumer behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic in a Latin American context.



Download data is not yet available.


Aguinis, H., Ramani, R.S. and Alabduljader, N. (2018), “What you see is what you get? Enhancing methodological transparency in management research”, Academy of Management Annals, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 83-110.

Ajzen, I. (1991), “The theory of planned behavior”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 50 No. 2, pp. 179-211.

Ashton, A., Scott, N., Solnet, D. and Breakey, N. (2010), “Hotel restaurant dining: the relationship between perceived value and intention to purchase”, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 10 No. 3, pp. 206-218.

Atkinson, R. and Flint, J. (2001), “Accessing hidden and hard-to-reach populations: snowball research strategies”, Social Research Update, Vol. 33, pp. 1-4.

Awada, L. and Yiannaka, A. (2012), “Consumer perceptions and the effects of country of origin labeling on purchasing decisions and welfare”, Food Policy, Vol. 37 No. 1, pp. 21-30.

Baker, S., Farrokhnia, R., Meyer, S., Pagel, M. and Yanneli, C. (2020), “How does household spending respond to an epidemic? Consumption during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic”, The Review of Asset Pricing Studies, Vol. 10 No. 4, pp. 834-862.

Bandura, A. and Adams, N.E. (1977), “Analysis of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change”, Cognitive Therapy and Research, Vol. 1 No. 4, pp. 287-310.

Bartik, A.W., Bertrand, M., Cullen, Z.B., Glaeser, E.L., Luca, M. and Santon, C.T. (2020), How Are Small Businesses Adjusting to Covid-19? Early Evidence from a Survey, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.

Bau, A., Zinger, T., Inglima, K., Atie, O., Yurasits, L., See, B. and Agüero-Rosenfeld, M. (2020), “Performance of the rapid Nucleic Acid Amplification by Abbott ID NOW COVID-19 in nasopharyngeal swabs transported in viral media and dry nasal swabs, in a New York City academic institution”, available at:

Briceño-León, R. (2000), “Bienestar, salud pública y cambio social”, in Salud y equidad: una mirada desde las ciencias sociales, FIOCRUZ, pp. 15-24.

Butkouskaya, V., Llonch-Andreu, J. and Alarcón-del-Amo, M. (2021), “The impact of customer performance on IMC outcomes: firm size moderation in the inter-country context”, Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, Vol. 26 No. 52, pp. 358-375.

Canbay, Ş. and Kırca, M. (2021), “Health expenditures (total, public and private) and per capita income in the BRICS+T: panel bootstrap causality analysis”, Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, Vol. 27 No. 53, pp. 52-67.

CDCP (2020), “Enfermedad del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19)”, available at:

Chang, T.-Z. and Wildt, A. (1994), “Price, product information, and purchase intention: an empirical study”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 16-27.

Chen, M. (2007), “Consumer attitudes and purchase intentions in relation to organic foods in Taiwan: moderating effects of food-related personality traits”, Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 18 No. 7, pp. 1008-1021.

Dib, C. (1988), “Formal, non‐formal and informal education: concepts/applicability”, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 173, pp. 300-315.

Dodd, M., Janson, S., Facione, N., Faucett, J., Froelicher, E., Humphreys, J. and Taylor, D. (2001), “Advancing the science of symptom management”, Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 33 No. 5, pp. 668-676.

Dodds, W. and Monroe, K. (1985), “The effect of brand and price information on subjective product evaluations”, Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 85-90.

Dodds, W., Monroe, K. and Grewal, D. (1991), “Effects of price, brand, and store information on buyers' product evaluations”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 28 No. 3, pp. 307-319.

Emami, A. and Naderi, N. (2018), “Impact of situation in the study of gender entrepreneurship and opportunity evaluation: an analysis of risk disposition”, in Competitiveness in Emerging Markets, Springer, Cham, pp. 427-445.

Fekete-Farkas, M., Gholampour, A., Bouzari, P., Jarghooiyan, H. and Ebrahimi, P. (2021), “How gender and age can affect consumer purchase behavior? Evidence from A microeconomic perspective from Hungary”, AD-Minister, Vol. 39, pp. 25-46.

Fishbein, M. (1979), “A theory of reasoned action: some applications and implications”, Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Vol. 27, pp. 65-116.

García, A.A. (2003), “Percepción del estado de salud”, Revista Multidisciplinar de Gerontología, Vol. 13 No. 5, pp. 340-342.

Goodman, L.A. (1961), “Snowball sampling”, The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, Vol. 32 No. 1, pp. 148-170.

Grag, S., Kim, L., Whitaker, M., O'Halloran, A., Cummings, C., Holstein, R. and Openo, K. (2020), “Hospitalization rates and characteristics of patients hospitalized with laboratory confirmed coronavirus disease 2019”, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 69 No. 15, pp. 458-464.

Haji, R. and Stock, W.G. (2021), “User settings for advertising optimization on Facebook: active customer participation or settings blindness?”, Telematics and Informatics, Vol. 59, 101548.

Hale, T., Kira, B., Petherick, A., Phillips, T. and Webster, S. (2020), “Variation in government responses to COVID-19”, available at:

Hesham, F., Riadh, H. and Sihem, N.K. (2021), “What have we learned about the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumer behavior?”, Sustainability, Vol. 13 No. 8, p. 4304.

Hofstede, G. (2011), “Dimensionalizing cultures: the Hofstede model in context”, Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 2307-0919.

Holloway, K. and Zerbe, K. (2000), “Simplified approach to somatization disorder: when less may prove to be more”, Postgraduate Medicine, Vol. 108 No. 6, pp. 89-95.

Huber, P.J. (1967), “The behavior of maximum likelihood estimates under nonstandard conditions”, Proceedings of the Fifth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Vol. 5, pp. 221-233.

INEGI (2018), “Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares (ENIGH), Nueva serie”, available at:

INEGI-INSP (2019), “Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición - 2018”, available at: (accessed 15 April 2020).

Insch, G. and McBride, B. (2004), “The impact of country-of-origin cues on consumer perceptions of product quality: a binational test of the decomposed country-of-origin construct”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 57 No. 3, pp. 256-265.

Kansra, P. and Oberoi, S. (2022), “Determinants of online purchase intention among young consumers in Punjab: a cross-sectional study”, International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development, Vol. 13 No. 6, pp. 1-14.

Lichtenstein, D., Ridgway, N. and Netemeyer, R. (1993), “Price perceptions and consumer shopping behavior: a field study”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 30 No. 2, pp. 234-245.

Makadok, R., Burton, R. and Barney, J. (2018), “A practical guide for making theory contributions in strategic management”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 39 No. 6, pp. 1530-1545.

Manhas, P.S. (2010), “Strategic brand positioning analysis through comparison of cognitive and conative perceptions”, Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, Vol. 15 No. 29, pp. 17-33.

Mendoza, J.G. and Garza, J.B. (2009), “La medición en el proceso de investigación científica: evaluación de validez de contenido y confiabilidad (Measurement in the scientific research process: content validity and reliability evaluation)”, Innovaciones de negocios, Vol. 6 No. 11, pp. 17-32.

Meyer, S. (2020), “Understanding the COVID-19 effect on online shopping behaviour”, Big Commer, Vol. 2, pp. 1-16.

Oliver, N., Xavier, B., Roomp, K. and Roomp, K. (2020), “Assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain: large-scale, online, self-reported population survey”, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 22 No. 9, pp. 1-16.

Omar, N., Nazri, M., Ali, M. and Alam, S. (2021), “The panic buying behavior of consumers during the COVID-19 pandemic: examining the influences of uncertainty, perceptions of severity, perceptions of scarcity, and anxiety”, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 62, 102600.

Painter, J., Fricken, M., Mesquita, S. and DiClemente, R. (2018), “Willingness to pay for an Ebola vaccine during the 2014–2016 ebola outbreak in West Africa: results from a U.S. National sample”, Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Vol. 14 No. 7, pp. 1665-1671.

Pérez, C. and Santín, D. (2007), Minería de datos: Técnicas y herramientas, Ediciones Paraninfo, Madrid.

Rader, B., Scarpino, S.V., Nande, A., Hill, A.L., Adlam, B., Reiner, R.C., Pigott, D.M., Gutierrez, B., Zarebski, A.E., Shrestha, M., Brownstein, J.S., Castro, M.C., Dye, C., Tian, H., Pybus, O.G. and Kraeme, M.U.G. (2020), “Crowding and the shape of COVID-19 epidemics”, Nature Medicine, Vol. 26 No. 12, pp. 1829-1834.

Rajamoorthy, Y., Radam, A., Taib, N., Rahim, K., Munusamy, S. and Wagner, A. (2019), “Willingness to pay for hepatitis B vaccination in Selangor, Malaysia: a cross-sectional household survey”, PLoS ONE, Vol. 14 No. 4, e0215125.

Rogers, R. (1975), “A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change 1”, The Journal of Psychology, Vol. 91 No. 1, pp. 93-114.

Rosenstock, I., Strecher, V. and Becker, M. (1988), “Social learning theory and the health belief model”, Health Education Quarterly, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 175-183.

Rutter, D. and Quine, L. (2002), “Social cognition models and changing health behaviours”, in Rutter, D. and Quine, L. (Eds), Changing Health Behaviour: Intervention and Research with Social Cognition Models, Berkshire, pp. 1-27.

Salcedo, N.U. (2021), “Editorial: an upcoming 30th anniversary encouraging the papers’ publication”, Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, Vol. 26 No. 51, pp. 2-6.

Saraceno, B., van Ommeren, M., Batniji, R., Cohen, A., Gureje, O., Mahoney, J. and Underhill, C. (2007), “Barriers to improvement of mental health services in low-income and middle-income countries”, The Lancet, Vol. 370 No. 9593, pp. 1164-1174.

Shen, C., Wang, Z., Yang, Y., Zhao, F., Li, J., Yuang, J. and Peng, L. (2020), “Treatment of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 with convalescent plasma”, Jama Network, Vol. 323 No. 16, pp. 1582-1589.

Smeeding, T. and Weinberg, D. (2003), “Toward a uniform definition of household income”, Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 47 No. 1, pp. 1-24.

Solomon, M., Bamossy, G., Askegaard, S. and Hogg, M.K. (2006), Consumer Behaviour, a European Perspective, Prentice Hall, Harlow.

Tahamtan, A. and Ardebili, A. (2020), “Real-time RT-PCR in COVID-19 detection: issues affecting the results”, Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, Vol. 20 No. 5, pp. 453-454.

Tan, T.Q., Kullar, R., Swartz, T.H., Mathew, T.A., Piggott, D.A. and Berthaud, V. (2020), “Location matters: geographic disparities and impact of coronavirus disease 2019”, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 222 No. 12, pp. 1951-1954.

Tarkiainen, A. and Sundqvist, S. (2005), “Subjective norms, attitudes, and intentions of Finnish consumers in buying organic food”, British Food Journal, Vol. 107 No. 11, pp. 808-822.

Ting, H. and De Run, E.C. (2015), “Attitude towards advertising: a young generation cohort's perspective”, Asian Journal of Business Research, Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 69-82.

Wallston, B.S., Wallston, K.A., Kaplan, G.D. and Maides, S.A. (1976), “Development and validation of the health locus of control (HLC) scale”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 44 No. 2, p. 580.

White, H. (1980), “A heteroskedasticity-consistent covariance matrix estimator and a direct test for heteroskedasticity”, Econometrica, Vol. 48 No. 4, pp. 817-838.

Winer, R. (1986), “A reference price model of brand choice for frequently purchased products”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 13 No. 2, pp. 250-256.

World Health Organization (2006), “Constitución de la Organización mundial de la Salud”, available at:

World Health Organization (2020), “Preguntas y Respuestas sobre la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19)”, available at:

Zeithaml, V. (1988), “Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 52 No. 3, pp. 2-22.




How to Cite

Cortez, K., Rodríguez-García, M. del P., & Reich, C. (2023). Consumers’ purchase intention of rapid COVID-19 tests. Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, 28(55), 79–95. Retrieved from



Special section: Business Economics from Iberoamerica - Part 1