Role of tourist destination development in building its brand image: A conceptual model
Keywords:Brand image, Competitive analysis, Destination development, Sustainable tourism, Interdisciplinary research, International/global tourism, Positioning
Tourism is truly an international/global industry. Tourism is vital to the economy of a country and sustainable tourism development requires an understanding of the complex interrelationships and interactions among a multitude of environmental factors and interdisciplinary forces that play a critical role in tourism development. While overall the field of tourism has been abundantly researched, there are certain areas where there is a paucity of research, namely, competition analysis, branding and positioning. Our research contributes to this extremely important but relatively less researched subject. Specifically, we study the relationship between destination development and its brand image. We develop a conceptual model which identifies various constructs, processes and linkages involved in the relationship between destination development and its brand image. We propose that the brand image has three components corresponding to the three stages of consumption/travel, namely, pre-travel, during travel, and post-travel. In developing this model we draw upon the interdisciplinary nature of tourism and discuss a variety of influences, such as, economic, social, cultural, political and psychological factors.
Aaker, D. (1991). Managing brand equity: Capitalizing on the value of a brand name. New York: Free Press.
Baloglu, S., & Brindberg, D. (1997). Affective images of tourism destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 35(4), 11–15.
Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. W.(1999). A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), 868–897.
Bansal, H., & Eiselt, H. A. (2004). Exploratory research of tourist motivations and planning. Tourism Management, 25, 387–396.
Baud-Bovy, M., & Lawson, F.(1998). Tourism and recreation handbook of planning and. design. Oxford: Architectural press.
Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1991). Marketing services: Competing through Quality. New York: Free Press.
Berry, L. L., & Seltman, K. D. (2007). Building a strong services brand: Lessons from Mayo Clinic. Business Horizons, 50, 199–209.
Blain, C., Levy, S. E., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (2005). Destination branding: Insights and practices from destination management organizations. Journal of Travel Research, 43(4), 328–338.
Bodlender, J., Jefferson, A., Jenkins, C., & Lickorish, L. (1991). Developing tourism destinations: Policies and perspectives. Essex: Longman.
Buhalis, D. (2000). Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Tourism Management, 21(1), 97–116.
Cai, A. (2002). Cooperative branding for rural destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(3), 720–742.
Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., & Guido, G. (2001). Brand personality: How to make the metaphor fit? Journal of Economic Psychology, 22, 377–395.
Carù, A., & Cova, B. (2003). Revisiting consumption experience: A more humble but complete view of the concept. Marketing Theory Articles, 3(2), 267–286.
Clarke, J., & Godfrey, K. (2000). The tourism development handbook: A practical approach to planning and marketing. London: Cassell.
Cohen, E. (1979). A Phenomenology of tourist experiences. Sociology, 13, 179–201.
Crask, M. R., & Henry, A. L. (1990). A positioning-based decision model for selecting advertising messages. Journal of Advertising Research, 30(4), 32–38.
Dobni, D., & Zinjkan, G. M. (1990). In search of brand image: A foundation analysis. In M. E. Goldberg, & R. W. Pollay (Eds.), Advances in Consumer Research. (pp. 110–119). Provo, Utah: Association for Consumer Research.
Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (1993). The measurement of destination image: An empirical assessment. Journal of Travel Research, 31(3), 3–13.
Embacher, J., & Buttle, F. (1989). A repertory grid analysis of Austria’s image as a summer vacation destination. Journal of Travel Research, 28, 3–7.
Goeldner, C. R., Mcintosh, R. W., & Ritchie, J. R. B.(2000). Tourism: Principles, practices, philosophies (8th edition). Toronto: John Wiley & Sons.
Hirschman, E. C., & Holbrook, M. B. (1982). Hedonic consumption: Emerging concepts, methods and preposition. Journal of Marketing, 46, 92–101.
Holbrook, M. B.(2000). The millennial consumer in the texts of our times: Experience and Entertainment. Journal of Micromarketing, 20(2), 178–192.
Larsen, S. (2007). Aspects of a psychology of the tourist experience. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 7(1), 7–18.
Laws, E. (1995). Tourist destination management: issues, analysis and policies. London: Routledge.
Lea, J. (1988). Tourism and development in the third world. London: Routledge.
Le Bel, J. L., & Cooke, N. (2008). Branded food spokes characters: Consumer’s contribution to narratives of commerce. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 17(3), 143–153.
Lynch, P., & Tinsley, R. (2001). Small tourism business networks and destination development. Hospitality Management, 20(4), 367–378.
Manrai, L. A., & Manrai, A. K. (1993). Positioning European countries as brands in a perceptual map: An empirical study of determinants of consumer perceptions and preferences. Journal of Euromarketing, 2(3), 101–129.
Marzuki, A. (2012). Local residents’ perceptions towards economic impacts of tourism development in Phuket. Tourism–An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 60(2), 199–212.
McConnell, D. (1989). The tourist: A new theory of the leisure class. New York, NY.
Metelka, C. J. (1981). The dictionary of tourism. Wheaton, IL: Merton House.
Metelka, C. J. (1990). The dictionary of tourism. Wheaton, IL: Merton House.
Mill, C. R., & Morrison, A. M. (1985). The tourism system: An introductory text. London: Prentice Hall.
Morgan, N., & Pritchard, A. (2002). Contextualizing destination branding. In N. Morgan, A. Pritchard, & R. Pride (Eds.), Destination branding - Creating the unique destination proposition. (pp. 11–41). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Nagle, G. (1999). Tourism, leisure and recreation. Surrey: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.
Padgett, D., & Allen, D. (1997). Communicating experiences: A narrative approach to creating service brand image. Journal of Advertising, 26(4), 49–62.
Pike, S., & Ryan, C. (2004). Destination positioning analysis through a comparison of cognitive, affective, and conative perceptions. Journal of Travel Research, 42(May), 333–342.
Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1998). Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard Business Review, 31, 97–105.
Pine, J., & Gilmore, J. H.(1999). The experience economy: Work is theatre and every business a stage: goods and services are no longer enough. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3), 5–14.
Richards, G. (2001). The experience industry and the creation of attractions. In G. Richards (Ed.), Cultural attractions and European tourism, CABI (pp. 55–69). UK: Oxfordshire Publishing.
Ritchie, J. R. B. (1987). Tourism marketing and the quality of life. In A. Coskun Samli (Ed.), Marketing and Quality of Life Interface (p. 225). New York: Quorum Books.
Sharpley, R.(2002). Snow business: A study ofthe international ski industry. Tourism Management, 23(4), 421–422.
Schmitt, B. (1999). Experiential marketing: How to get customers to sense, feel, think, act and relate to your company and brands. New York: Free Press.
Schmitt, B. (2008). Experiential attributes and consumer judgments. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
Tang, J. C. S. (2008). Residents’ attitudes, perception and support for sustainable tourism Development. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 5(1), 45–60.
Triplett, T. (1994). Brand personality must be managed or it will assume a life of its own. Marketing News, 28(10), 9.
Vrdoljak-Salamon, B., & Corak, S. (2012). Journal tourism: Content analysis in the period 2000-2011. Tourism–An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 60(4), 457–474.
Walmsley, D. J., & Jenkins, J. M. (1993). Tourism cognitive mapping of unfamiliar environments. Annals of Tourism Research, 19, 268–286
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.